Download e-book for iPad: A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including by Arthur Israel Vogel

By Arthur Israel Vogel

ISBN-10: 0582442451

ISBN-13: 9780582442450

The most effective books there's educating functional natural chemistry. The 3rd variation of this ebook (first released in 1956) is admittedly of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously dear glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Extra resources for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

Example text

8] THEORY OF GENERAL TECHNIQUE 17 SOLUTIONS OF LIQUIDS IN LIQUIDS 1,8. Partially miscible liquids. Critical solution temperature. , water and ethyl alcohol or acetone) mix with one another in all proportions. Many examples are known, however, in which the liquids are partially miscible with one another. If, for example, water be added to ether or if ether be added to water and the mixture shaken, solution will take place up to a certain point; beyond this point further addition of water on the one hand, or of ether on the other, will result in the formation of two liquid layers, one consisting of a saturated solution of water in ether and the other a saturated solution of ether in water.

A flat maximum and a small CDE curve indicate considerable decomposition of the addition compound into its components as in Fig. , naphthalene and m-dinitroberizene). Other examples of this system are collected in the following table. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. 63-7° EuTEcncs 16-0° 24-0° 8-0° 19-9° 36° 80-6° 50- 2° 30-3° (66-5 %A). (32% 4) (76% 4), (31 %^4) (94 % A), (42% A) (60% A), (19 %A) 1,15. System in which the two components form a compound with an incongruent melting point. In this system the compound formed Composition Fig.

Thus the point x (Fig. /, 12, 1) is a mixture of solid B ( = y) and liquid of composition z : the proportion of liquid to solid is given by the ratio of the distance xyfxz. 1,13. Construction of equilibrium diagrams. It is interesting to consider how a complete equilibrium diagram (including solidus and cu 1 8 <*> cx £ °\ \ \ \ Freezing begins / Freezmg I ends V Freezing begins 1 Eutectic separates 1 Freezing ends- i c\ ^ d Time Time Time (I) (ID (HI) Fig. /, n, i. liquidus curves) may be constructed.

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A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition by Arthur Israel Vogel


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