By Khaled Fahmy
Whereas scholarship has generally considered Mehmed Ali Pasha because the founding father of smooth Egypt, Khaled Fahmy deals a brand new interpretation of his position within the upward push of Egyptian nationalism, firmly finding him in the Ottoman context as an formidable, if challenging, Ottoman reformer. Basing his paintings on formerly missed archival fabric, the writer demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to advance the Egyptian financial system and to accumulate the military, no longer as a method of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, yet to additional his personal objectives for well-known hereditary rule over the province. by means of concentrating on the military and the soldier’s day-by-day reviews, the writer constructs an in depth photograph of makes an attempt at modernization and reform, how they have been deliberate and carried out by way of quite a few reformers, and the way the general public at huge understood and accommodated them. during this method, the paintings contributes to the bigger methodological and theoretical debates referring to nation-building and the development of kingdom energy within the specific context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.
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Additional resources for All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt
The first supposes that the soldiers of this army were fighting in what they believed to be national wars, wars that were waged to defend "Egypt" or to expand its borders. In spite of some isolated acts of resistance to the novel practices of the modern army, these peasantconscripts, it is commonly argued, came to realize that by participating in these wars they discovered their true sentiments, viz. that they were Egyptians first and foremost, and not Muslims or Ottoman subjects, for example. In this manner the nationalist argument assumes that the army was only a catalyst that helped Egyptians discover their true identity - something that was bound to happen, but which in the absence of that "national" army might simply have taken a longer time to materialize.
Sabry, L'Empire egyptien, p. 580. Abul-Futuh Radwan, Tarikh Matba'at Bulaq [History of the Bulaq Press] (Cairo: Bulaq, 1953), pp. 342-43. 'Abdel-Karim, Tarikh al-Ta'lim, pp. 655-64. Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). , p. 235. 22 Introduction goods were barred from Egyptian markets as well as from other areas under the Pasha's rule. "56 The present book, while accepting the assumption that Britain did indeed view Mehmed Ali's activities suspiciously and that her policies as represented and pursued by Lord Palmerston were, in fact, instrumental in curbing Mehmed Ali's power, does not unproblematically assume that the reason for this hostile stance was its fear of the Pasha's industrial schemes.
86 European nation-states came into being not only through the spread of nationalist feelings and sentiments but also through the states' monopoly of means of violence and their amassing of administrative and military measures that enabled them to extend their authority and control over remote regions in a permanent and stable manner. Studying Mehmed Ali's army offers a good opportunity to verify whether a similar process could be detected in the Egyptian case, and if the growing power of the Egyptian state in the first half of the nineteenth century could be attributed to its effective monopoly of means of violence.
All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt by Khaled Fahmy