By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
13) Thus, the insolation for a given period of time is Q= 1 F(t)dt. 14) The total solar energy received on an unit area per one day may be evaluated by integrating over the daylight hours. Upon substituting Eq. et cos eo(t) dt. 15) 46 2 Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere The solar zenith angle is normally determined from other angles that are known. In reference to Fig. 9, let P be the point of observation and OZ the zenith through this point. Assume that the sun is in the direction OS or PS and let D be the point directly under the sun.
However, as illustrated in Fig. 5 ,urn. Consequently, flux density observations cannot be made in these regions. Therefore empirical corrections are needed for the omitted ranges, which account for about 8% of the solar flux. There are sources of error inherent in the Smithsonian long method caused by (1) empirical corrections for absorption of ultraviolet by ozone, and absorption of infrared by water vapor and carbon dioxide in the wings of the solar spectrum; (2)an unknown amount of diffuse radiation entering the aperture of the observing instrument; (3) variations of k A and the possible effects of aerosols during a series of measurements, and (4) measurement errors.
These cool gases absorb continuous radiation emitted from the photosphere at wavelengths characteristic of the atoms in the sun, and generate the solar absorption spectrum. 3, when an atom absorbs radiant energy, it is excited to a new energy level. The excited atom then makes a transition to a lower excited state, or to the ground state, during which a quantum of energy is emitted. Consequently, the emission spectrum of the chromosphere is formed. Since the absorption spectrum is produced by the initial transition of atoms from a low energy to a high energy state, while the emission spectrum results from the subsequent transition of the same atoms in the reverse direction, it is clear that the lines in the emission spectrum are the same as those in the sun's absorption spectrum.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)