By Sergio Franco
This textbook is meant for EE majors envisioning business careers in analog electronics. Analog integrated-circuit (IC) designers, product, strategy, and reliability engineers, try and test-development engineers, analog purposes, advertising, and customer-support engineers are constantly in powerful call for.
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Extra info for Analog Circuit Design: Discrete & Integrated
Clearly, we have three separate regions of operation. Within each region, the VTC is a straight segment whose analytical expression is obtained by drawing the corresponding equivalent circuit, as per Fig. 19, and subjecting it to elementary linear analysis techniques. This is typical of diode circuits. 20 shows the waveshaping effect of the circuit of Fig. 18 upon a triangular wave. Here, the aim is to compress the top and the bottom of the triangle to approximate a sine. Clearly, the present example provides a rather crude approximation, but it is not hard to imagine that we can improve it by using additional segments.
The reader is encouraged to trace through each waveform in detail to develop a feel for the workings of this clever circuit. Voltage multipliers find application in integrated circuits, where it is desired to synthesize specific voltages to bias different on-chip circuits, starting out with a single supply voltage such as that provided by a rechargeable battery. 25 Voltage quadrupler. 26 Waveforms for the voltage quadrupler of Fig. 25. 3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS AND DIODE APPLICATIONS As we move along we shall find that the range of applications for diodes and, later, for transistors can be expanded significantly if we team up these devices with the operational amplifier, or op amp for short.
The solution to the diffusion equation is an exponential decay with x for holes, and with 2x for electrons, in the manner illustrated in Fig. 43, middle. 54a) is called the hole diffusion length, in cm. 8%) of its boundary value p9n(xn). 54b) The lengths Lp and Ln are typically on the order of 101 m, so we generally have Lp @ xn and Ln @ xp. Note that p9n → 0 at the right end of the n-type slab (x 5 Wn), as the excess holes undergo total recombination with the electrons of the metal electrode there.
Analog Circuit Design: Discrete & Integrated by Sergio Franco