By Zeynep Yürekli
In line with an intensive exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival records and hagiographies, this publication uncovers the political value of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore presents a clean and complete account of the formative technique of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial rules within the past due 15th century, used to be counseled imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) tender strength coverage, and stored less than payment by means of imperial experts because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened through the remainder of the 16th century. This publication demonstrates that it used to be a mixture of 2 collective actions that confirmed the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the overdue 15th century onwards. One was once the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto distinctive social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another in the course of the lives of old figures who have been their id markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman heritage in artistic methods. the opposite one used to be the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of type, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output unearths a classy means of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional aspect within the e-book are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. notwithstanding proven as autonomous associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community lower than the Ottomans, grew to become its critical centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, more often than not below the patronage of raider commanders dependent within the Balkans. They hence got here to occupy an middleman socio-political quarter among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
The issue has been little explored across dynastic boundaries. Because shrine complexes constitute a marginal topic in Islamic architectural historiography,37 the functional/typological categories of Islamic architecture that were established in the twentieth century are of little help for their study. When applied to a multifunctional complex, functional categories (mosque, madrasa, palace and so on) tend to produce a distorted perspective and an incomplete picture. Within the modern typology of Islamic architecture, there simply is no rubric to allow funerary shrines supervised by dervishes to be defined by their multiple functions as pilgrimage sites, Sufi centres and social welfare institutions.
This ‘warlike and lordly’ aspect emerged when the shrine was radically transformed under the patronage of three members of the Mihaloğlu ‘minidynasty’ from 1493 until 1512. 2). In the course of this construction activity, the tomb of Seyyid Gazi was completely rebuilt on a colossal scale, the old buildings surrounding it were restored, and lead-plated domes were added to them. The new buildings added to the north and the east included monumental kitchens and ritual spaces, which judging by their scale, catered to a great number of pilgrims in addition to the dervish residents who lived on the premises.
Once again, the complex has a palatial aspect. The courtyards are flanked by individual buildings which include a kitchen and bakery, assembly rooms, offices, living quarters, stables and storage facilities. As I will discuss in more detail in Chapter 4, their arrangement bears a striking resemblance to that of Ottoman imperial palaces in Istanbul and Edirne. The composition of separate buildings which include massive cooking and ritual facilities around courtyards is a reflection of the multifunctional role of both shrines.
Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age by Zeynep Yürekli