By Alan H. Welch, Kenneth G. Stollenwerk
Offers an outline of the elemental procedures that have an effect on arsenic incidence and delivery by way of supplying enough historical past info on arsenic geochemistry and outlines of high-arsenic floor water. Of curiosity to scientists operating within the box of arsenic, well-being execs attracted to arsenic publicity, and water-resource managers and regulators.
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Additional info for Arsenic in Ground Water Geochemistry and Occurrence
The broadscan (low resolution) XPS spectrum, usually spanning ~1,000 eV, shows several peaks corresponding to the elements present in the sample superimposed upon a background. When high resolution (narrow scan) spectra are collected over smaller intervals spanning a peak of interest, a single peak is usually observed to be composed of several peaks. These peaks (called chemical shifts) are due multiple species of a single element present in a sample. Chemical shifts arise from coordinative differences, as in surface vs.
Spectroscopic Investigations of Arsenic in Solid Phases 31 Another difficulty in the interpretation of sequential extraction data is that the availability of As from most stoichiometric As minerals does not fit neatly into one of the predefined chemical/mineralogical compartments, because it will be a function of the mineral solubility and dissolution kinetics under the chemical conditions of the extraction solution(s). For example, Voigt and Brantley (1997) determined that As in the mineral hoernesite was released during the exchangeable, carbonate, and Fe oxyhydroxide extraction steps before it was completely dissolved, leading to an overestimation of the fraction of As in ion-exchangeable sites and As associated with carbonate minerals.
The latter three techniques are briefly reviewed below. For a detailed explanation of general spectroscopic principles, the reader is referred to Levine (1975). 1 Infrared (IR) and Raman Spectroscopy IR and Raman are sensitive to the rotation and vibration of molecules in solid phases (crystalline or x-ray amorphous). Molecular units of similar structure and composition absorb IR radiation in the same energy range, usually independent of the larger structure of the material; this property makes IR spectroscopy useful for studying molecules in the interfacial region such as surface hydroxyl groups and As oxoanions on mineral surfaces, and for fingerprinting the local environment of As in crystalline Chapter 2 32 and x-ray amorphous solids.
Arsenic in Ground Water Geochemistry and Occurrence by Alan H. Welch, Kenneth G. Stollenwerk