By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk turned the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately reworking his kingdom right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified by means of science--and by way of the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign excellent because the new faith. This ebook offers the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the historic context of the turbulent age within which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the past due Ottoman imperial order to the trendy Turkish country via his existence and ideas.
laying off mild on probably the most advanced and enigmatic statesmen of the fashionable period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's early life as a Muslim boy within the unstable ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and armed forces faculties, to his embody of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks circulate. Who was once this determine who sought glory as an formidable younger officer in global conflict I, defied the triumphant Allies cause on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each degree of his existence, demonstrating how he used to be profoundly motivated via the recent principles that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He indicates how Atatürk drew on a special mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to style a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.
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Extra info for Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography
Fin-de-si�cle salonica 19 however, after 1878 the impoverished state paid salaries only a few months out of the year. To supplement his meager earnings, Ali Rıza used his experience and connections to establish a partnership with a Salonican timber merchant. At first successful, he soon fell out with the Greek brigands who made a living by extorting bribes from timber merchants. The partnership disintegrated and, after a brief spell in the salt trade, Ali Rıza sank into bankruptcy. His desperation triggered illness and death at the age of fortyseven.
Along with other officers of his generation, he considered the ritualized veneration of the sultan a betrayal of the ideal of a nation in arms, which stood above any flesh-and-blood ruler. In a sign of growing opposition to the sultan, many students at the imperial colleges demonstrated an increasing aversion to any expression of loyalty to him. 19 There was something ironic about the young officers’ antagonism toward the regime of Abdülhamid II. After all, it was he who had established or reformed many of the new colleges and schools in an effort to modernize the Ottoman educational system.
Altogether, Salonica had undergone a major transformation during the reform era and had begun to look like a Western European city. The Muslim com M. Tayyib Gökbilgin, Rumeli᾽de Yürükler, Tatarlar ve Evlâd-ı Fâtihan (Istanbul: Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları, 1957), 255–56. 37 Mehmet Zeki Pakalın, “Evlâd-ı Fatihân,” Osmanlı Tarih Deyimleri ve Terimleri Sözlüğü, vol. 1 (Istanbul: Millî Eğitim Basımevi, 1983), 572. 36 26 chapter 1 Figure 1. Fin-de-siècle Salonica. Source: IRCICA Fotoğraf Arşivi Merkez Derleme Koleksiyonu, no.
Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu