By Joon Park, R. S. Lakes
With sixty years of mixed adventure, the authors of this commonly revised e-book have realized to stress the elemental fabrics technology, structure-property relationships, and organic responses as a beginning for a wide range of biomaterials purposes. This variation contains a new bankruptcy on tissue engineering and regenerative drugs, nearly 1900 references to extra interpreting, vast instructional fabrics on new advancements in spinal implants and fixation suggestions and idea. It additionally bargains systematic assurance of orthopedic implants, and increased remedy of ceramic fabrics and implants.
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Extra resources for Biomaterials: An Introduction
3-9) Equation (3-9) indicates that the stress concentration becomes very large for a sharp crack tip as well as for long cracks. Thus, the propagation of a sharp crack can be blunted if one increases the crack tip radius. For example, progression of a crack in a large glass window can be halted or slowed by drilling a hole in the glass at the crack tip. Griffith proposed in 1920 an energy approach to fracture. The elastic energy stored in a test specimen of unit thickness is V ¬ S(aV)2 . Vq H Sa 2 V E ® E (3-10) Observe that the elastic energy for a brittle material is twice the area under the stress–strain curve.
2: THE STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS Table 2-2. Examples of Crystal Structures Material Crystal structure Cr bcc Co hcp (below 460ºC) hcp (above 460ºC) Fe Mo bcc (below 912ºC), ferrite (D) fcc (912–1394ºC), austenite (J) bcc (above 1394ºC), delta iron (G) bcc Ni fcc Ti hcp (below 900ºC) bcc (above 900ºC) Rock salt (NaCl) fcc Alumina (Al2O3) hcp Polyethylene orthorhombic Polyisoprene orthorhombic Determination of crystal structures is actually made by an x-ray instrument where monochromatic waves are diffracted from the planes of atoms, as shown in Figure 2-6.
The hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure is arranged by repeating layers of every other plane, that is, the atoms in the third layer occupy sites directly over the atoms in the first layer, as shown in Figure 2-4. , while the fcc structure can be represented by three layers of planes ABCABC} Both hcp and fcc have the same packing efficiency (74%); both structures have the most efficient packed planes of atoms with the same coordination number. Figure 2-4. Hexagonal close-packed structure. Compare the arrangement of atomic planes with fcc structure.
Biomaterials: An Introduction by Joon Park, R. S. Lakes