By Stephan Gollasch
Maritime canals dissolve average limitations to the dispersal of marine organisms, therefore supplying them with many possibilities for normal dispersal, in addition to for shipping-mediated delivery. The creation of alien species proved to be some of the most profound and destructive anthropogenic deeds - concerning either ecological and monetary expenditures. This publication is the 1st to match the affects of the 3 vital maritime canals Kiel, Panama, Suez as invasion hall for alien biota. the 3 vary of their geographic destinations, hydrological regimes, and of their permeability to alien biota.
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Extra info for Bridging Divides
The Kiel Canal is the shortest link between the North and Baltic Seas. Compared with other shipping canals the voyage duration gain using the Canal is small: about 400 nautical miles are saved by using the canal instead of the shipping route around Denmark. 5 days of travel time are saved (446 nautical miles) by using the canal. It is estimated that the shortcut using the canal is at least worth 20,000 Euro. The canal is open every day. However, in winter 1928/29 a severe period of frost occurred with temperatures dropping to –21°C.
The railway bridge at Rendsburg built 1911-1913. Courtesy Wasser- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung (WSV) Germany. 5 Gollasch and Rosenthal Canal navigation The waterway is a two-way traffic system. The ship passages and canal navigation are controlled by a team of 24 traffic control officers in control centres in Holtenau and Brunsbüttel. In management of the canal, ship classes are defined according to their size and the nature of their cargo. Ships transporting dangerous cargo and large vessels are only permitted to pass in one of the twelve passing bays.
However, after 1913 no “cleaning” (flushing) occurred. Species also moved into the canal by ship movements. Hinkelmann (1896) observed that the bow wave of ships transported species for several kilometres into the canal. However, this observation is anecdotal and one may suspect that if at all effective, this transportation means could operate in either direction. Arndt (1931/32) lists 115 zooplankton and zoobenthos taxa from various sampling stations in the canal and states that the known taxa from the canal are underestimated, especially since several groups of taxa had not been studied to species level.
Bridging Divides by Stephan Gollasch