By Yi-Fu Tuan
In a quantity that represents the fruits of his life's paintings in contemplating the connection among tradition and panorama, eminent pupil Yi-Fu Tuan argues that "cosmos" and "hearth" are scales that anchor what it capacity to be totally and fortunately human. Illustrating this rivalry with examples from either his local China and his domestic of the earlier 40 years, the us, Tuan proposes a revised notion of tradition, one completely grounded in one's personal society but additionally embracing interest concerning the international. confident and deeply human, this crucial quantity lays out a route to being "at domestic within the cosmos."
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Extra resources for Cosmos and Hearth: A Cosmopolite's Viewpoint
Material culture? Yes, but great architectural works conflicted with the ideal of harmonious relationships with nature. As for military power, the Chinese state was exceptional among great states in belittling the naked assertion of will: its tradition lacked a warrior ethos. So what aspects of culture were the Chinese unreservedly proud of? I believe there were two: the harmonious cosmos with its attendant rituals and Confucian humanism. These two aspects of culture had different origins but were in time so closely interwoven that they could be regarded as one, with the difference being largely whether attention was directed primarily to nature (adapting to the rhythms of heaven) or to human relationships (Confucianism).
One of the earliest (ca. ) and surely the most ambitious was the Duke of Chou's aspiration to divide the country into mathematical squares with the royal capital at the center. Of course he could not carry out such a scheme, but he, like many of his successors, did feel a need for clarity and standardization. And at scales smaller than the country it could be translated into reality. Two well-known examples are the rectilinear patterning of streets in the cities and the "well-field" system of partitioning cultivated land, with each field the shape of a square, forty acres in size.
The villagers are also aware of a much larger, more sophisticated cultural world beyond the borderland, to which they belong. In the early decades of the twentieth century, they made attempts to raise themselves to a higher, more prestigious level under the prompting of the local elites. ), magical beliefs, and extravagant funeral rites, and on the other hand builds up filial piety and the well-ordered family—the foundation for society at large—based on genuine respect and affection and on an awareness of the mutual obligations and duties between the generations.
Cosmos and Hearth: A Cosmopolite's Viewpoint by Yi-Fu Tuan