Designing Safer Chemicals. Green Chemistry for Pollution by Stephen C. DeVito, Roger L. Garrett PDF

By Stephen C. DeVito, Roger L. Garrett

ISBN-10: 0841215898

ISBN-13: 9780841215894

ISBN-10: 0841234434

ISBN-13: 9780841234437

content material: pollutants prevention, eco-friendly chemistry, and the layout of more secure chemical compounds / Roger L. Garrett --
common ideas for the layout of more secure chemical substances : toxicological concerns for chemists / Stephen C. DeVito --
melanoma danger aid via mechanism-based molecular layout of chemical substances / David Y. Lai ... [et al.] --
Isosteric substitute of carbon with silicon within the layout of more secure chemical compounds / Scott McN. Sieburth --
layout of biologically more secure chemical compounds in response to retrometabolic ideas / Nicholas Bodor --
Predicting charges of cytochrome-P450-mediated bioactivation and its software to the layout of more secure chemical compounds / Jeffrey P. Jones --
Use of desktops in toxicology and chemical layout / G.W.A. Milne, S. Wang, and V. Fung --
Designing biodegradable chemical substances / R.S. Boethling --
Designing aquatically more secure chemical substances / Larry D. Newsome, J. Vincent Nabholz, and Anne Kim --
Designing more secure nitriles / Stephen C. DeVito --
Designing an environmentally secure marine antifoulant / G.L. Willingham and A.H. Jacobson --
Imine-isocyanate chemistry : new know-how for environmentally pleasant, high-solids coatings / Douglas A. Wicks and Philip E. Yeske.

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Extra info for Designing Safer Chemicals. Green Chemistry for Pollution Prevention

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From such information the environmentally conscious chemist can often design a new substance such that it will be both safe and commercially useful. The remainder of this section provides specific examples of the design of safer analogs of important commercial chemical substances whose toxic effects and mechanisms are well known but not apparentfromtheir structures. The chapters entitled Cancer Risk Reduction Through Mechanism-Based Molecular Design of Chemicals (by Lai, et al) and Designing Safer Nitriles (by DeVito) provide more detailed examples on how an understanding of toxic mechanisms can be used to design safer commercial chemical substances.

The sulfate moiety of 10 is a particularly good leaving group because the resulting carbocation (11) is both benzylic and allylic and, thus, highly resonance stablized. 1). When designing alcohols, chemists should avoid placing C=C moieties on any carbon atom that contains both the -OH group and at least one hydrogen atom, as such allyl alcohols are likely to undergo enzymatic oxidation to a,6-unsaturated carbonyl metabolites. Chemists should also avoid placing an aromatic substituent onto the alcoholic carbon of allyl alcohols.

Teratogenicity (also known as developmental toxicity) is the ability of a substance to cause a toxic effect in the fetus or offspring, following maternal administration of the substance anytime prior to or during gestation. These toxic effects can vary widely, andfrequentlyinclude: structural abnormalities; altered growth; mental retardation; blindness; deafness; cleft palate; functional deficits; and death. The teratogenic effects of carboxylic acids include skeletal defects (extra presacral vertebrae, fused ribs), exencephaly, reduced fetal weight, neural tube defects, and death (74).

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Designing Safer Chemicals. Green Chemistry for Pollution Prevention by Stephen C. DeVito, Roger L. Garrett


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