By Rob H. G. Jongman, Gloria Pungetti
The institution of ecological networks in Europe and greenways in the US has required software of the rules of panorama ecology to land use making plans. This e-book presents a radical assessment of contemporary advancements, combining theoretical ideas of panorama ecology with the perform of panorama making plans and administration. as well as organic and actual issues for biodiversity safety and recovery, equivalent assurance is given to cultural and aesthetic concerns illustrating how sustainable land use regulations should be applied.
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Extra info for Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, Implementation
5 The spiralling concept for river systems (Pinay et al. 1990). Strong interactions between the stream and the riparian systems in the ecotone represent important exchanges of nutrients, matter and species. is a difﬁcult and little-known aspect. Transport of waste and ﬁsh migration only become evident if large accidents occur such as the Sandoz accident in the 1980s, or the Guadiamar and Tisza accidents in the 1990s. These emphasise the role of rivers as ecological corridors. Owing to their role as transport mechanisms for nutrients, matter and species, rivers should be key systems in spatial planning and at least they are in the development of ecological networks.
The term ‘migration’ is generally reserved for mass directional movements of individuals of a species from one locality to another. The individuals engaged in migration mostly move between two locations and return to the same home ranges and often with the same mates. Why species migrate is still one of the most challenging questions, especially in ornithology (Berthold 1993; Pettingill 1970). According to Gill (1995) the potential beneﬁts of migration are species- or population-speciﬁc, such as the need to escape from inhospitable climates, probable starvation, social dominance, shortage of nests or roost sites, or competition for food.
This process started on a small scale, but has continued until the present day. The history of nature conservation and of urban ecological networks started as a reaction to the industrial revolution. Already in the last half of the nineteenth century and the ﬁrst period of the twentieth century nature was integrated into urban planning, for instance when the main axes of towns were developed into green boulevards, such as the Champs Elysees ´ and the footpaths along the Seine in Paris (Searns 1995).
Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, Implementation by Rob H. G. Jongman, Gloria Pungetti